Ulkomaalaistaustaiset Helsingissä

Tilastoja Helsingin ulkomaalaistaustaisten, vieraskielisten ja ulkomaan kansalaisten väestörakenteesta, muuttoliikkeestä, asumisesta, koulutuksesta, työssäkäynnistä ja toimeentulosta

Employment and unemployment

(24.6.2021)

The most recent statistical data on the employment situation of residents with foreign background is found in the Ministry of Employment and the Economy’s employment service statistics that are compiled monthly from the registers of the Employment and Economic Development Offices. In December 2020, the unemployment rate in Helsinki was 24.7 per cent among foreign-mother-tongue residents and 14.5 per cent among the population as a whole. The 13,513 foreign-mother-tongue unemployed made up no less than 26 per cent of all unemployed people in Helsinki.

The most recent register-based statistical data on the employment and unemployment of residents with foreign background are found in Statistics Finland’s employment statistics. At the end of 2019, the unemployment rate of residents with foreign background in Helsinki was 17.0 per cent and their employment rate among 20–64 year-olds 58.0 per cent. The unemployment rate of residents with Finnish background was 7.5 per cent and the employment rate 78.1 per cent. The registers include some people who in reality no longer live in Finland, which reduces the employment rate of residents with foreign background to some extent.

Elsewhere in the Helsinki Region the unemployment rate of residents with foreign background was 14.7 per cent, and their employment rate among 20–64-year-olds was 62.5 per cent. Elsewhere in Finland, the proportions were 20.0 per cent and 56.0 per cent.

At the end of 2019 the number of unemployed residents with foreign background in Helsinki was 9,281, of whom half were men. The number was 400 persons fewer than the previous year, and the unemployment rate declined. In 2019 the unemployment rates of population with foreign background were at the same level than in 2011.

The employment rate of 20–64-year-old population with foreign background was 62.4 per cent among men and 52.8 among women. The employment rate of men is highest in the age group of 30–44-year olds and that of women in the age group of 45–54-year-olds. The employment rates of residents with foreign and Finnish background differ more among women than men.

Higher education does not protect residents with a foreign mother tongue from unemployment as efficiently as Finnish- and Swedish-speaking residents. The unemployment rate among residents with a foreign mother tongue remains fairly constant regardless of their education.

The employment situation of residents with foreign background varies greatly with background country. While some nationality groups have come to Finland mainly in search of work, others have come as refugees. Residents with refugee background have had more difficulties in finding a job than other people. Those born in Sweden and Estonia as well as elsewhere in the Western Europe had the highest employment rate.

At the end of the year 2018, half of employed population with foreign background in Helsinki were employed in either administration and support services, health or social care services, accommodation and food services or construction.

The statistical occupational groups of “service or sales workers” and “professionals” were prominent in the occupational structure of both foreign- and Finnish-background Helsinki residents. Professionals included, for example, university teachers and application planners.

In many occupational groups, the proportion of foreign-background employees is considerable. In 2018 this proportion was more or less 50 per cent among office and establishment cleaners as well as bus or tram drivers and house builders.

Education

(28.1.2021)

Educational level of the population

The level of education among immigrants is hard to compare to that of the entire population because the degrees of many people with a foreign background do not exist in the Finnish register of degrees. Information about the population’s educational structure includes each person’s highest degree acquired in Finland and the degrees acquired abroad, which have been specifically exported to the register. The majority of degrees acquired abroad and registered in Finland are university degrees.

On the other hand, the educational structure of the children of immigrants, i.e. second generation Finns with a foreign background, can be reviewed because they were born in Finland and have gone through the Finnish educational system. The number of second generation Finns among the population remains very low, especially among the older age groups; however, the number is rapidly rising.

Among the younger age groups, the level of education of the second generation population with a foreign background is behind other Helsinki residents. At the end of 2018, while only 66 % of the second generation aged 20–24 had acquired a degree following comprehensive education, the corresponding figure was 88 % for persons in the same age with a Finnish background (Figure 1). Of the second generation population aged 25–64, 80 % had a degree following comprehensive education at the end of 2018, whereas the corresponding figure was 90 % for those with a Finnish background.

Early childhood education

Children with a foreign background often benefit from early childhood education because learning a domestic language before school, especially, improves school success. At the end of 2019, 22 % (8,441) of all Helsinki residents aged 1–6 were foreign language-speakers. With regard to these foreign language-speaking children, in 19 % of cases both the child and the parents were born abroad, in 74 % of the cases the parents were born abroad but the child was born in Finland, and in other cases, at least one of the parents was born in Finland.

Fewer foreign language-speaking children residing in Helsinki take part in early childhood education than domestic language-speaking children. The difference by mother tongue is biggest before the age of three. At the end of 2019, 37 % of foreign language-speaking children aged 1–2 took part in municipal or private early childhood education, whilst the same figure among domestic language-speakers was 55 % (Figure 2).  At the age of 3–6, 93% of foreign language-speakers and 88 % of domestic language-speakers took part in early childhood education. There are no significant differences in the level of participation between the major language groups.

Comprehensive education

In Helsinki, comprehensive education is provided by the City of Helsinki, the state and private operators. At the end of 2019 there were a total of 10,702 persons aged 7–15 in Helsinki whose mother tongue was not Finnish, Swedish or Sami. The percentage of all children in that age was 20 %. The highest percentage of foreign language students is in state-run comprehensive schools and city-run Finnish language comprehensive schools.

If the student’s mother tongue is not Finnish, Swedish or Sami or if the student has a multilingual background, the student can study Finnish or Swedish as a second language (F2, S2). In 2020 there were a total of 9,100 students with Finnish as a second language, or 22 % of all students, disregarding the students of Helsinki’s Swedish language schools.

93 % of Helsinki residents who had finished comprehensive school in 2018 were studying towards a degree and 4 % were taking courses not leading to a degree. Of foreign language-speakers who had finished comprehensive school, 85 % continued directly with studies leading to a degree; 8 % sought other forms of education. The percentage of foreign language-speakers seeking further education has mainly risen in recent years. As recently as 2010, only 63% continued with education leading to a degree directly after comprehensive school.

Upper secondary education and university education

There were 1,953 foreign language-speaking upper secondary school students taking part in youth education in Helsinki and 656 taking part in adult education in 2019. There were 10 253 foreign language students studying towards a vocational basic degree and 1,667 foreign language students studying towards a professional or specialist degree. In universities of applied sciences there were 2,916 foreign language students and in universities 3,855 foreign language students in 2019 in Helsinki.

Of Helsinki residents aged 16–18, 91 % were either in a upper secondary school or vocational school in 2019. Of students aged 16–18 whose mother tongue is not Finnish or Swedish, 44 % were upper secondary school students and 28 % vocational degree students. The number of foreign language youth in upper secondary education drastically increased between 2010–2019. In 2010, only approximately every other foreign language-speaker aged 16–18 was receiving upper secondary education.

Of all 20–24-year-olds in Helsinki 45 % were in tertiary education in 2019, while only 25 % of foreign language-speakers at the same age group were studying at the university level. The foreign-language-speaking 20–24-year-olds are university of applied sciences students as often as Helsinki residents at this age in general but significantly less frequently university students.

 

Spatial distribution of population with foreign background

(24.12.2020)

Home to no less than 28 per cent of Helsinki’s foreign-background population, the Eastern Major District has a clearly higher proportion of foreign-background residents than have other major districts of Helsinki.

At the end of 2019, the proportion of foreign-background residents among the local population was highest – over one-third – in the Kallahti, Itäkeskus, Meri-Rastila, Kontula, Jakomäki, Kivikko and Kurkimäki sub-districts. The lowest proportion of foreign-background residents was found in Pirkkola, Suomenlinna and Paloheinä, while Santahamina was the only sub-district without any foreign-backround residents.

At the end of 2019, the proportion of foreign-background residents among the local population was highest – over one-third – in the Kallahti, Itäkeskus, Meri-Rastila, Kontula, Jakomäki, Kivikko and Kurkimäki sub-districts. The lowest proportion of foreign-background residents was found in Pirkkola, Suomenlinna and Paloheinä, while Santahamina was the only sub-district without any foreign-backround residentsIn terms of continent of origin, most background-country groups in Helsinki are concentrated to, above all, the Eastern, but also the North-eastern and Western Major Districts. Of those with a Russian or Estonian origin, over two-thirds lived in these major districts at the end of 2019. Those originating from North America, Sweden or South America most typically lived in the Southern Major District.

Background of migrants

(23.3.2021)

In Helsinki in 2019, the net migration of population with a foreign mother tongue was positive in all age groups apart from over 45-year-olds. The migration gain was highest in the age group of 20–29-year-olds.

Language groups that had the highest net migration in Helsinki in 2019 were native speakers of Arabic (409), Russian (366) and Somali (353 people). In 2019 Helsinki had a 484-person net migration loss of Estonian native speakers. No more than ten years ago, the annual net migration gain of Estonian native speakers was around 500, and in 2012 it peaked at almost 1,000, only to start declining rapidly. Yet in 2015, it was still 241 people.

Net migration of citizens of South, West and Middle Asian countries was 1,280 people and that of citizens of African countries 545 people. The net migration gain of nationals from other EU countries and other countries of northern and western Europe – 86 persons – was lowest since a long time. The domestic net migration of EU citizens was negative.

Migration overall

(23.3.2021)

In 2019, the population of Helsinki grew by 5,793 people i.e. 0.9 per cent. In Finland as a whole, the number of births has been falling in recent years. In 2016, nativity started falling in Helsinki, too. In 2019 the natural population growth was 1,214 people.

The total migration gain of Helsinki in 2019 was 4,643 people: International net migration was 2,917 people and domestic net migration 1,726 people.

Foreign net migration has been clearly positive ever since the year 2000, albeit net migration gains have been in decline ever since 2011.

Domestic net migration has varied more than has foreign net migration. Those moving from Helsinki to other parts of Finland outnumbered those moving to Helsinki in the years 2002–2007, but since then, domestic migration has been raising Helsinki’s population figure.

In 2019, of the 42,670 people who moved to Helsinki, 29 per cent had a foreign mother tongue and 24 per cent were foreign nationals. The net migration of population with a foreign mother tongue was 3,050 people, which accounted for two-thirds of the total migration gain in Helsinki.

Net migration of people with a foreign mother tongue grew clearly during the first decade of the 2000s. In 2019, the net migration gain of people with a foreign mother tongue was somewhat higher than the previous year. The total migration gain of foreign nationals was 3,245 people.

The migration of population with foreign background to or from Helsinki has been characterized by strong immigration from abroad and relatively lively migration within Finland. Over the 2000s, Helsinki has had an international net migration loss of 9,000 people with a national mother tongue but an international net migration gain of 55,000 people with a foreign mother tongue. The number of residents with foreign background in Helsinki is rising primarily due to international migration but domestic migration has had a growing positive net effect as well. Nevertheless in 2019, domestic net migration loss was -148  foreign-language speakers.

International and domestic migration

(23.3.2021)

In 2019, a total of 7,663 people moved from abroad to Helsinki. 5,624 of them, that is 73 per cent, had a foreign mother tongue. Of the 4,746 people who moved abroad from Helsinki, 2,426 i.e. 51 per cent had a foreign mother tongue. Thus, the international migration gain of people with a foreign mother tongue was 3,198 people. The net international migration gain was higher than earlier. The number of emigrants was lower than the previous year.  The international migration gain of foreign nationals was 3,453 people.

Those moving to Helsinki from the rest of Finland in 2019 amounted to 35,007 people and 6,742 i.e. 19 per cent of them had a foreign mother tongue. Those moving from Helsinki to the rest of Finland numbered 33,281, of whom 6,890 i.e. 21 per cent had a foreign mother tongue. The net migration loss of population with a foreign mother tongue was 148 people. This was significantly lower than the migration gain the previous year. The migration loss of foreign nationals was 208 people.

In the internal migration within the Helsinki Region, Helsinki had a net migration loss of 1 684 residents with a foreign mother tongue in 2019. This was more than before. By comparison, the migration-related loss of domestic-mother-tongue residents to the rest of the Helsinki Region was 2 140 residents.

Population by sex and age

(25.3.2021)

At the end of 2019, around 52 per cent of the total population in Helsinki were women. Among the population with foreign background men were in the majority with a share of 52 per cent.

However, there are great differences between people from different background continents and language groups. Women were a majority only among those residents with foreign background whose background country was a European country outside the EU.

Differences in gender structure are great between background-country groups, as far as large groups are concerned. Of those persons whose background country was the former Soviet Union 59 per cent and those originating from Estonia 52 per cent were women, whereas with Somalis, men were in a 52 per cent majority.

As a whole, Helsinki’s foreign-background population is younger than the Finnish-origin population. The majority of foreign-background residents are of working age with, for example, 25-44 year olds making up 44 per cent at the end of 2019. This proportion among the Finnish-background population was one-third. The proportion of under 16 year olds was 20 per cent in the foreign-background population and 14 per cent among Finnish-background residents. Instead, the proportion of 65 year olds or older was just 5 per cent in the foreign-background population but one-fifth among those with a domestic mother tongue. There are clear differences of age structure between background-country groups.

The age structure of first-generation foreign-background residents differs clearly from that of second-generation foreign-background residents. At the end of 2019, no less than 74 per cent of those with a foreign background born in Finland were no older than 15 years. Of minor foreign-background residents in Helsinki, 68 per cent had been born in Finland. Of first-generation immigrants, on the other hand, 85 per cent were of working age.

Age structure of the whole population and those with a foreign mother tongue in Helsinki on 31 Dec. 2019

Age structure of the whole population and those with a foreign mother tongue in Helsinki on 31 Dec. 2019

Foreign nationals

(23.3.2021)

At the end of 2019, Helsinki’s population included people with a total of 164 different nationalities. The number of foreign nationals living in Helsinki was 63,650. Of foreign nationals, 36 per cent were from EU countries and 13 per cent from elsewhere in Europe. 33 per cent were Asians, 12 per cent Africans, 3 per cent from North America and 2 per cent from South America. The largest group of foreign nationals, with 11,276 people, was Estonians, followed by Russian nationals (5,794 people), and Iraqi nationals (3, 661).

Many former Somali nationals have acquired Finnish citizenship: The number of residents with a Somalian background in Helsinki was four times higher than that of Somali nationals. There were also a lot more residents with a background in the former Soviet Union than Russian nationals. Many of them are Ingrians, i.e. ethnic Finns from Russia, who were granted the status of returnees, or their family members. On the other hand, the number of Estonian nationals was almost the same as that of residents with an Estonian background. The number of people with a Swedish background was even smaller than that of Swedish nationals. This is mainly explained by Finns born in Sweden, who have later moved to Finland.

Finnish citizenship was obtained by 2,293 foreign nationals in Helsinki in 2019. The largest groups obtaining Finnish citizenship were Russians, Somalis, Estonians and Iraqis. The number of people obtaining Finnish citizenship was somewhat larger than in 2018 both in Helsinki and Finland as a whole. In Finland as a whole, 9,649 foreign nationals who had been living permanently in the country obtained Finnish citizenship in 2019. Between 2000 and 2019, Finnish citizenship was granted to approximately 30,000 people in Helsinki.

Birth rate

(26.3.2021)

In 2019, the number of children born in Helsinki was 6,332. To each one thousand 15–49-year-old women in the city, 38 children were born. This figure, the crude birth rate (fertility rate), was 34 for Finnish- or Sami-speaking women, 35 for Swedish-speaking women and 53 for women with a foreign mother tongue.

On average, mothers with a foreign mother tongue bore their children at a younger age than mothers who spoke one of the national languages. Among 20–24-year-olds, the fertility rate was 47 for women with a foreign mother tongue and 10 for Finnish- and Sami-speaking women. The fertility rate of Finnish- and Sami-speaking women was somewhat lower than that of foreign-language speakers among other age groups as well.

In 2019 the total fertility rate in Helsinki was 1.11. For the population with a foreign mother tongue, the figure was 1.56.

Fertility varies with language group. Of large language groups, the fertility rate of Russian-, Estonian- and English-speaking people differs very little from that of the population with a national mother tongue. On the other hand, the total fertility rate of Somali-speaking residents was over two times higher than that of the whole population. In all, the fertility of foreign-language speakers has fallen in the 2000s, while that of the population with a national mother tongue has remained more constant.

Families with children

(23.3.2021)

At the end of 2019, there were 20,104 families with children in Helsinki where at least one parent (or the single parent) had a foreign mother tongue. They made up 26 per cent of all families. Some of these families had no children under the age of 18. The number of families with at least one child under 18 years of age and at least one parent with a foreign mother tongue was 17,603, or 28 per cent of all families with under-aged children.

There are fewer families with no children under 18 years among families with a foreign mother tongue than other families. The proportion of such families was 23 among families where both parents (or the single parent) had a national mother tongue and 12 per cent among families with at least one parent with a foreign mother tongue. The difference is partly explained by the younger age structure of the population with a foreign mother tongue.

Families with a foreign mother tongue had more children. The overall average number of children in families with children in Helsinki was 1.67. On average, there were 1.69 children in families with two parents with a national mother tongue and 2.10 children in families with two parents with a foreign mother tongue. Families with small children and families with at least 3 children were more common among families with a foreign mother tongue.

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